She Wears a Head Scarf. Is Quebec Derailing Her Career?

She Wears a Head Scarf. Is Quebec Derailing Her Career?

MONTREAL — Maha Kassef, 35, an ambitious elementary school teacher, aspires to become a principal. But since she wears a Muslim head scarf, she may have to put her dreams on hold: A proposed bill in Quebec would bar public school principals, and other public employees, from wearing religious symbols.

“How am I supposed to teach about respect, tolerance and diversity to my students, many of whom are immigrant kids, when the government is asking me to give up who I am?” asked Ms. Kassef, the child of Kuwaiti immigrant parents who worked tirelessly to send her and her four siblings to college.

“What right does the Quebec government have to stop my career?” she added.

Religious minorities in Quebec are reeling after the right-leaning government of François Legault proposed the new law last week. It would prohibit not just teachers, but other public sector workers in positions of authority, including lawyers and police officers, from wearing religious symbols while working.

Current public sector workers would get an exemption, though only as long as they stay in the same position within the same organization, according to the bill. This means that a teacher, for example, could not change schools or be promoted if she refused to take off her head scarf.

Mr. Legault argues that Quebecers will remain free to practice their religions, and that the “notwithstanding clause” is “a legitimate tool.”

Still, Irwin Cotler, a leading international human rights lawyer in Montreal who was Canada’s justice minister and attorney general, called the proposed law a “broad-based assault on liberal values, including the freedom of religion.”

He said that by invoking the notwithstanding clause to try to insulate the law from legal challenges, the government was displaying disrespect for the fundamental role of the courts in safeguarding constitutionally guaranteed minority rights.

He said opponents of the proposed legislation could potentially seek recourse by filing a complaint at the United Nations Human Rights Committee on the grounds that the bill undermined the 1976 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. While the United Nations committee cannot revoke the legislation, its decisions carry moral and legal weight, he said.

Gregory Bordan, a leading constitutional lawyer and a religious Jew, has worn his skullcap to the office for the past 33 years. Soon, he, too, may have to leave it at home if he wants to work for the government or represent his law firm on a government contract.

He said the scope of the proposed bill was far wider than many realized and amounted to a political project to marginalize minorities from the judiciary, education and law enforcement.

Under the proposed legislation, he noted, lawyers who wear a head scarf, cross, skullcap or turban could no longer be retained as external counsel by the government to represent it before the courts or with a third party.

Moreover, a lawyer wearing religious garb could not be hired as an employee of the government, the national assembly or various other public bodies, even if appearing before the courts or a third party was not part of their job description.

“The message that this law sends is that unless you look like us, you can’t participate in public life,” said Mr. Bordan, who represents Coalition Inclusion Quebec, a group of religious minorities.

Mr. Bordan, whose great-grandparents came from Ukraine and Poland to Canada in the early 1900s, added that his parents had insisted he become fluent in French, and that he had been raised as a proud Quebecer. Now he felt betrayed.

“It is an insult to be told I am incapable of being impartial unless I remove my kipa,” he said, referring to his skullcap in Hebrew. “I did everything to become part of the society, and now I am being told that it’s all a sham.”

Public expressions of Muslim identity have been an explosive issue in several European countries, and some defenders of secularism have criticized Muslim head coverings as undermining female empowerment.

Similarly, some proponents of the ban in Quebec have sought to frame it as a form of feminist liberation for Muslim women. The preamble to the bill notes that Quebec “attaches importance to the equality of women and men.”

But Quebec’s women’s federation accused the government of “secularizing the oppression of women.” It said the law would ghettoize Muslim women by excluding them from professional and social life.

Ms. Kassef, the teacher and aspiring principal, noted that if she was forced to teach without a head scarf, it would undermine her ability to be an effective teacher.

“A teacher has to lead by example,” she said, “and can’t give 100 percent if they feel broken, battered and oppressed.”

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